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Research Article

Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection

  • David A Rosen,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Thomas M Hooton,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Walter E Stamm,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Peter A Humphrey,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Scott J Hultgren

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Published: December 18, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040329

About the Authors

David A Rosen, Scott J Hultgren
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Thomas M Hooton
Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America
Walter E Stamm
Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Peter A Humphrey
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: hultgren@borcim.wustl.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DAR, TMH, WES, and SJH designed the study. TMH and WES enrolled patients. DAR, PAH, and SJH designed and performed the experiments. DAR, TMH, WES, PAH, and SJH analyzed the data and contributed to writing and editing the paper.