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Research Article

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration

  • Jan P Vandenbroucke,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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  • Erik von Elm,

    Affiliations: Institute of Social & Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Centre, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Douglas G Altman,

    Affiliation: Cancer Research UK/NHS Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Peter C Gøtzsche,

    Affiliation: Nordic Cochrane Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Cynthia D Mulrow,

    Affiliation: University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, United States of America

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  • Stuart J Pocock,

    Affiliation: Medical Statistics Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Charles Poole,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, United States of America

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  • James J Schlesselman,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, United States of America

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  • Matthias Egger mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: strobe@ispm.unibe.ch

    Affiliations: Institute of Social & Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • for the STROBE Initiative
  • Published: October 16, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040297

About the Authors

Jan P Vandenbroucke
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Erik von Elm, Matthias Egger
Institute of Social & Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Erik von Elm
Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Centre, Freiburg, Germany
Douglas G Altman
Cancer Research UK/NHS Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom
Peter C Gøtzsche
Nordic Cochrane Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Cynthia D Mulrow
University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, United States of America
Stuart J Pocock
Medical Statistics Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Charles Poole
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, United States of America
James J Schlesselman
Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, United States of America
Matthias Egger
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: strobe@ispm.unibe.ch

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

All authors contributed to the writing of the paper. JPV, EvE, DGA, PCG, SJP, and ME wrote the first draft of different sections of the paper. EvE takes care of most of the practical coordination of STROBE. ME initiated STROBE and, together with EvE, organised the first workshop.