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Research Article

Whole Grain, Bran, and Germ Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study and Systematic Review

  • Jeroen S. L de Munter,

    Affiliations: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Institute of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Frank B Hu,

    Affiliations: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

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  • Donna Spiegelman,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Mary Franz,

    Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Rob M van Dam mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rvandam@hsph.harvard.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Institute of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

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  • Published: August 28, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040261

About the Authors

Jeroen S. L de Munter, Frank B Hu, Mary Franz, Rob M van Dam
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Jeroen S. L de Munter, Rob M van Dam
Institute of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Frank B Hu, Donna Spiegelman
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Frank B Hu, Rob M van Dam
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School
Donna Spiegelman
Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rvandam@hsph.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JSLdM and RMvD designed the study, analyzed the data, and drafted the paper. FBH and DS provided advice on the statistical analysis and interpretation of the data and commented on drafts of the manuscript. MF created the whole grain food composition database. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.