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Research Article

Age Interactions in the Development of Naturally Acquired Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum and Its Clinical Presentation

  • John J Aponte mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jjairo@clinic.ub.es

    Affiliations: Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic/IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Centro de Investigacão en Saude de Manhica, Manhica, Mozambique

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  • Clara Menendez,

    Affiliations: Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic/IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Centro de Investigacão en Saude de Manhica, Manhica, Mozambique

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  • David Schellenberg,

    Affiliations: Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic/IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, Ifakara, Tanzania

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  • Elizeus Kahigwa,

    Affiliation: Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, Ifakara, Tanzania

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  • Hassan Mshinda,

    Affiliation: Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, Ifakara, Tanzania

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  • Penelope Vountasou,

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

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  • Marcel Tanner,

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

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  • Pedro L Alonso

    Affiliations: Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic/IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Centro de Investigacão en Saude de Manhica, Manhica, Mozambique

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  • Published: July 31, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040242

About the Authors

John J Aponte, Clara Menendez, David Schellenberg, Pedro L Alonso
Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic/IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
John J Aponte, Clara Menendez, Pedro L Alonso
Centro de Investigacão en Saude de Manhica, Manhica, Mozambique
David Schellenberg, Elizeus Kahigwa, Hassan Mshinda
Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, Ifakara, Tanzania
Penelope Vountasou, Marcel Tanner
Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Corresponding Author

Email: jjairo@clinic.ub.es

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JJA, CM, EK, HM, MT, and PLA designed the study. JJA, MT, and PLA analyzed the data. CM, DS, and EK enrolled patients. JJA, CM, DS, EK, HM, MT, and PLA contributed to writing the paper. EK, HM, and PLA collected data or performed experiments for this study. DS helped to coordinate the team that recruited and followed-up children in Ifakara. EK was involved in the recruitment of children for whom baseline data were collected through both clinical and laboratory tests. EK supervised the field work concerning weekly malaria chemoprophylaxis, and performed follow-up in cross-sectional surveys where physical examination of children was done and laboratory tests were taken. EK also performed follow-up in passive case detection if the child became ill and needed clinical attention. PV was involved in the study design and data management, and supported the statistical analysis. MT assisted in coordinating the whole programme of which this paper is part.