About the Authors
- Julie Fotheringham, Donatella Donati, Nahid Akhyani, Anna Fogdell-Hahn, Elizabeth Williams, Steven Jacobson
- Viral Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
- Donatella Donati
- Struttura Complessa di Microbiologia e Virologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena, Italy
- Anna Fogdell-Hahn
- Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
- Alexander Vortmeyer, John D Heiss
- Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
- Steven Weinstein, Derek A Bruce, William D Gaillard
- Children's National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
- William D Gaillard, Susumu Sato, William H Theodore
- Clinical Epilepsy Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Maryland, United States of America
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
DD, AFH, JDH, WDG, WHT, and SJ designed the study. JF, DD, NA, AFH, AV, WHT, and SJ analyzed the data. JDH, SW, DAB, WDG, SS, and WHT enrolled patients. JF, DD, NA, AFH, AV, JDH, EW, WDG, WHT, and SJ contributed to writing the paper. DD, JF, NA, and AFH performed the experiments (sample processing, DNA extraction, astrocyte isolation, IFA staining). AV performed procurement and histologic evaluation of resected tissues. JDH is the Principal Investigator for the clinical protocol, Research Study of Specimens Obtained During Epilepsy Surgery, 02-N-0014, and was involved in the design of the experiments, the acquisition of surgical tissue specimens, and the care of the patients who donated the research specimens. DAB was the neurourgeon who operated on the children who underwent seizure surgery. SS participated in the selection of surgical candidates and of surgical plans, performed intraoperative electrocorticography and extraopertive invasive (subdural) recording in order to determine the location of seizure foci, and interpreted these results and discussed and determined actual resection plans with a neurosurgeon. WHT was responsible for clinical evaluation and neuroimaging. SJ participated in study design and data analysis.