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Research Article

Lethal Injection for Execution: Chemical Asphyxiation?

  • Teresa A Zimmers,

    Affiliations: Dewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Jonathan Sheldon,

    Affiliation: Devine, Connell & Sheldon, P.L.C., Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America

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  • David A Lubarsky,

    Affiliations: Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine, and Pain Management, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America, Department of Management, University of Miami School of Business, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Francisco López-Muñoz,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain

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  • Linda Waterman,

    Affiliation: Department of Comparative Medicine and Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Richard Weisman,

    Affiliation: Florida Poison Center–Miami, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Leonidas G Koniaris mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:LKoniaris@med.miami.edu

    Affiliations: Dewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Published: April 24, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040156

About the Authors

Teresa A Zimmers, Leonidas G Koniaris
Dewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America
Teresa A Zimmers, Leonidas G Koniaris
Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America
Jonathan Sheldon
Devine, Connell & Sheldon, P.L.C., Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America
David A Lubarsky
Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine, and Pain Management, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America
David A Lubarsky
Department of Management, University of Miami School of Business, Miami, Florida, United States of America
Francisco López-Muñoz
Department of Pharmacology, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain
Linda Waterman
Department of Comparative Medicine and Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America
Richard Weisman
Florida Poison Center–Miami, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: LKoniaris@med.miami.edu

Competing Interests

JPS practices capital defense. DAL has been a paid expert consultant in death penalty litigation. The other authors have no conflicts to disclose.

Author Contributions

TAZ, JPS, DAL, and LGK conceived the study. TAZ and JPS obtained protocol information and execution data. TAZ, DAL, and LGK analyzed the data and published literature. DAL, LW, and RW provided clinical insights. TAZ, JPS, and FLM provided historical perspectives and references. All authors contributed to writing and editing the manuscript.