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Research Article

Antibody to Aquaporin 4 in the Diagnosis of Neuromyelitis Optica

  • Friedemann Paul equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Orhan Aktas

    Affiliations: Cecilie-Vogt-Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany

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  • Sven Jarius equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Orhan Aktas

    Affiliations: Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Orhan Aktas equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Orhan Aktas

    Affiliations: Cecilie-Vogt-Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany

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  • Martin Bluthner,

    Affiliation: Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

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  • Oliver Bauer,

    Affiliation: Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

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  • Heribert Appelhans,

    Affiliation: Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

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  • Diego Franciotta,

    Affiliation: Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Foundation Neurological Institute C. Mondino, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

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  • Roberto Bergamaschi,

    Affiliation: Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Foundation Neurological Institute C. Mondino, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

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  • Edward Littleton,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Jacqueline Palace,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Hans-Peter Seelig,

    Affiliation: Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany

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  • Reinhard Hohlfeld,

    Affiliation: Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany

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  • Angela Vincent,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Frauke Zipp mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: frauke.zipp@charite.de

    Affiliations: Cecilie-Vogt-Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany

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  • Published: April 17, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040133

About the Authors

Friedemann Paul, Orhan Aktas, Frauke Zipp
Cecilie-Vogt-Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Friedemann Paul, Orhan Aktas, Frauke Zipp
Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
Sven Jarius, Reinhard Hohlfeld
Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Sven Jarius, Edward Littleton, Jacqueline Palace, Angela Vincent
Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Sven Jarius, Edward Littleton, Jacqueline Palace, Angela Vincent
Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Martin Bluthner, Oliver Bauer, Heribert Appelhans, Hans-Peter Seelig
Institute of Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Karlsruhe, Germany
Diego Franciotta, Roberto Bergamaschi
Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Foundation Neurological Institute C. Mondino, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

Corresponding Author

Email: frauke.zipp@charite.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

FP, SJ, OA, and FZ designed the study. FP, SJ, OA, MB, and OB analyzed the data. FP, SJ, OA, RB, EL, JP, RH, and FZ enrolled patients. FP, SJ, OA, MB, DF, RH, AV, and FZ contributed to writing the paper. FP, OA, OB, DF, RB, HPS, RH, and FZ collected data or performed experiments for the study. FP, SJ, DF, RB, EL, JP, RH, and FZ collected and analyzed clinical, CSF, and MRI data, and tested patient sera. HA performed all experiments concerning the molecular cloning of aquaporin cDNA, verifying the DNA sequence, and choosing and providing the expression plasmid for in vitro transcription/translation. AV suggested additional experiments that were done before submission.