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Research Article

Clonal Waves of Neisseria Colonisation and Disease in the African Meningitis Belt: Eight- Year Longitudinal Study in Northern Ghana

  • Julia Leimkugel,

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

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  • Abraham Hodgson,

    Affiliation: Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Navrongo, Ghana

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  • Abudulai Adams Forgor,

    Affiliation: Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Navrongo, Ghana

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  • Valentin Pflüger,

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

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  • Jean-Pierre Dangy,

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

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  • Tom Smith,

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

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  • Mark Achtman,

    Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany

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  • Sébastien Gagneux,

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

    ¤ Current address: The Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Gerd Pluschke mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Gerd.Pluschke@unibas.ch

    Affiliation: Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

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  • Published: March 27, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040101

About the Authors

Julia Leimkugel, Valentin Pflüger, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Tom Smith, Sébastien Gagneux, Gerd Pluschke
Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
Abraham Hodgson, Abudulai Adams Forgor
Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Navrongo, Ghana
Mark Achtman
Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: Gerd.Pluschke@unibas.ch

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JL was involved in the collection of samples, identification of bacterial isolates, handling of the database, multilocus sequencing analysis, pulsed field analysis, analysis of the data, and writing of the manuscript. AH participated in the establishment of the study, collection of the samples, the treatment of the patients, and writing of the manuscript. AAF was engaged in the collection of the samples, the treatment of the patients, and analysis of the data. VP participated in the collection of samples and isolation and characterisation of bacterial isolates. JPD was involved in the multilocus sequence analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. TS contributed in the analysis of the demographic and epidemiological data and the spatial distribution of the meningitis cases and carriers of N. meningitidis in KND. MA was involved in the establishment of the study, pulsed field analysis, multilocus sequence analysis, and analysis of the data. SG participated in the establishment of the study, collection of samples, identification of bacterial isolates, multilocus sequence typing, analysis of the data, and writing of the manuscript. GP was responsible for the design and the supervision of the project and participated in the analysis of all data and writing of the manuscript. JL, AH, AAF, VP, JPD, TS, MA, SG, and GP critically revised the manuscript and gave their approval for submission of the final version.