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Research Article

Lack of Mucosal Immune Reconstitution during Prolonged Treatment of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection

  • Saurabh Mehandru,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Michael A Poles,

    Affiliations: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Klara Tenner-Racz,

    Affiliation: Bernhard-Nocht Institut Fur Tropenmedizin, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Patrick Jean-Pierre,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Victoria Manuelli,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Peter Lopez,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Anita Shet,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Andrea Low,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Hiroshi Mohri,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Daniel Boden,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Paul Racz,

    Affiliation: Bernhard-Nocht Institut Fur Tropenmedizin, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Martin Markowitz mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mmarkowitz@adarc.org

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: December 05, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030484

About the Authors

Saurabh Mehandru, Michael A Poles, Patrick Jean-Pierre, Victoria Manuelli, Peter Lopez, Anita Shet, Andrea Low, Hiroshi Mohri, Daniel Boden, Martin Markowitz
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
Michael A Poles
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
Klara Tenner-Racz, Paul Racz
Bernhard-Nocht Institut Fur Tropenmedizin, Hamburg, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: mmarkowitz@adarc.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that they do not have commercial or other associations that might cause a conflict of interest.

Author Contributions

SM, MAP, and MM designed the study. SM, KTR, PR, and MM analyzed the data. SM, AS, AL, and MM enrolled patients. SM, MAP, KTR, DB, PR, and MM contributed to writing the paper. MAP is the gastroenterologist who performed all the study procedures and specimen collection. SM, PJP, VM, and PL collected data or carried out experiments for the study. KTR and PR provided immunohistochemistry and quantification of T cells in the LP, in situ hybridization and identification of cells with HIV gene expression, and the photomicrographs for this manuscript.