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Research Article

Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach

  • Philippe Bourgois mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: philippe.bourgois@ucsf.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Alexis Martinez,

    Affiliation: Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Alex Kral,

    Affiliations: Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, RTI International, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Brian R Edlin,

    Affiliations: Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Jeff Schonberg,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Dan Ciccarone

    Affiliations: Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: October 24, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030452
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Philippe Bourgois, Alex Kral, Brian R Edlin, Jeff Schonberg, Dan Ciccarone
Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Alexis Martinez
Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Alex Kral
RTI International, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Brian R Edlin
Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America
Dan Ciccarone
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: philippe.bourgois@ucsf.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

PB, AK, BRE, and DC designed the collaborative study. PB, AM, AK, JS, and DC analyzed the data. PB, AM, AK, BRE, JS, and DC contributed to writing the paper. PB and JS collected ethnographic data. AM ran the statistics. AK collected epidemiological data. BRE served as Director of the UHS from 1997 through 2002 and supervised the study design, including the questionnaires, the policies and procedures for the field staff, and the management of the data. JS collected photographic data. DC coordinated the interdisciplinary analyses between anthropological and epidemiological researchers.