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Research Article

Adherence to HAART: A Systematic Review of Developed and Developing Nation Patient-Reported Barriers and Facilitators

  • Edward J Mills mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: millsej@univmail.cis.mcmaster.ca

    Affiliation: Centre for International Health and Human Rights Studies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Jean B Nachega,

    Affiliations: Centre for International Health and Human Rights Studies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David R Bangsberg,

    Affiliation: San Francisco General Hospital, AIDS Division, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Sonal Singh,

    Affiliations: Centre for International Health and Human Rights Studies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Beth Rachlis,

    Affiliation: BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Ping Wu,

    Affiliation: Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, North York, Ontario, Canada

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  • Kumanan Wilson,

    Affiliations: Centre for International Health and Human Rights Studies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Iain Buchan,

    Affiliation: Evidence for Population Health Unit, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Christopher J Gill,

    Affiliation: Center for International Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Curtis Cooper

    Affiliations: Centre for International Health and Human Rights Studies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: November 21, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030438

About the Authors

Edward J Mills, Jean B Nachega, Sonal Singh, Kumanan Wilson, Curtis Cooper
Centre for International Health and Human Rights Studies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Jean B Nachega, Sonal Singh
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
David R Bangsberg
San Francisco General Hospital, AIDS Division, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Beth Rachlis
BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Ping Wu
Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, North York, Ontario, Canada
Kumanan Wilson
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Iain Buchan
Evidence for Population Health Unit, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Christopher J Gill
Center for International Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Curtis Cooper
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: millsej@univmail.cis.mcmaster.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

EJM, JN, SS, BR, PW, KW, and CC designed the study. EJM, JN, DRB, SS, BR, PW, and CC analyzed the data. EJM, JN, DRB, SS, BR, PW, KW, IB, CJG, and CC contributed to writing the paper. DRB contributed to the editing of the manuscript and interpretation of data in context of international adherence literature. BR was involved in article selection. PW was involved in paper searching (from abstract to full text), paper review, data extraction and analysis.