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Research Article

HLA Alleles Associated with Delayed Progression to AIDS Contribute Strongly to the Initial CD8+ T Cell Response against HIV-1

  • Marcus Altfeld mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: maltfeld@partners.org

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth T Kalife,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Ying Qi,

    Affiliation: Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Hendrik Streeck,

    Affiliations: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Gemeinschaftspraxis Jessen, Berlin, Germany

    X
  • Mathias Lichterfeld,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Mary N Johnston,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Nicole Burgett,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Martha E Swartz,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Amy Yang,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Galit Alter,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Xu G Yu,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Angela Meier,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Juergen K Rockstroh,

    Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Todd M Allen,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Heiko Jessen,

    Affiliation: Gemeinschaftspraxis Jessen, Berlin, Germany

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  • Eric S Rosenberg,

    Affiliation: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Mary Carrington,

    Affiliation: Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Bruce D Walker

    Affiliations: Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Published: October 31, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030403

About the Authors

Marcus Altfeld, Elizabeth T Kalife, Hendrik Streeck, Mathias Lichterfeld, Mary N Johnston, Nicole Burgett, Martha E Swartz, Amy Yang, Galit Alter, Xu G Yu, Angela Meier, Todd M Allen, Eric S Rosenberg, Bruce D Walker
Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Ying Qi, Mary Carrington
Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
Hendrik Streeck, Heiko Jessen
Gemeinschaftspraxis Jessen, Berlin, Germany
Juergen K Rockstroh
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Bruce D Walker
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: maltfeld@partners.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

MA and BW designed the study. MA, EK, YQ, HS, ML, MES, TMA, ER, MC, and BW analyzed the data. MNJ, NB, HJ, and ER enrolled patients. MA, HS, JR, HJ, MC, and BW contributed to writing the paper. EK and HS performed experiments and analyzed data for this study. ML performed some of the ELISPOT assays described in the manuscript and analyzed the corresponding data. AY contributed to collecting patient samples. GA ran ELISPOTs and prepared samples that were used as data for the manuscript. XY was involved in performing the experiments. TMA determined entropy scores for sequence variability. YQ and MC provided relative hazards for the HLA alleles and performed correlation analyses.