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Research Article

Determining Risk for Severe Leptospirosis by Molecular Analysis of Environmental Surface Waters for Pathogenic Leptospira

  • Christian A Ganoza equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Christian A Ganoza, Michael A Matthias

    Affiliation: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

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  • Michael A Matthias equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Christian A Ganoza, Michael A Matthias

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Devon Collins-Richards,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Kimberly C Brouwer,

    Affiliation: Division of International Health and Cross-Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Calaveras B Cunningham,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Eddy R Segura,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

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  • Robert H Gilman,

    Affiliation: Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Eduardo Gotuzzo,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

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  • Joseph M Vinetz mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jvinetz@ucsd.edu

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Published: August 22, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030308

About the Authors

Christian A Ganoza, Eddy R Segura, Eduardo Gotuzzo
Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
Michael A Matthias, Devon Collins-Richards, Calaveras B Cunningham, Joseph M Vinetz
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Kimberly C Brouwer
Division of International Health and Cross-Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Robert H Gilman
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jvinetz@ucsd.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

CAG, ERS, and JMV designed the study. CAG, MAM, KCB, CBC, and JMV analyzed the data. JMV enrolled patients. CAG, MAM, DCR, KCB, CBC, ERS, RHG, EGH, and JMV contributed to writing the paper. KCB's role in preparation of this work also included creation of laboratory and spatial data maps, analysis of geospatial and visualization data, and writing and editing drafts. CDC conducted nested PCRs from DNA extracted from water samples and ran gels. CDC then cloned samples, performed real-time PCR experiments on the clones, submitted samples for sequencing, and finally edited and analyzed the sequences. ERS contributed to setup of the urban and rural components of the study, collection of samples, and running of preliminary PCR. EGH added substantial contributions to later versions of the paper.