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Research Article

Anti-Interferon Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1

  • Anthony Meager mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ameager@nibsc.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Biotherapeutics, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, South Mimms, United Kingdom

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  • Kumuthini Visvalingam,

    Affiliation: Biotherapeutics, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, South Mimms, United Kingdom

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  • Pärt Peterson,

    Affiliation: Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, Biomedicum, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Kaidi Möll,

    Affiliation: Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, Biomedicum, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Astrid Murumägi,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

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  • Kai Krohn,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

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  • Petra Eskelin,

    Affiliations: Department of Human Molecular Genetics, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Jaakko Perheentupa,

    Affiliation: Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Eystein Husebye,

    Affiliations: Division of Endocrinology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

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  • Yoshihisa Kadota,

    Affiliation: Neurosciences Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

    ¤ Current address: Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, Japan

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  • Nick Willcox

    Affiliation: Neurosciences Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Published: June 13, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030289

About the Authors

Anthony Meager, Kumuthini Visvalingam
Biotherapeutics, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, South Mimms, United Kingdom
Pärt Peterson, Kaidi Möll
Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, Biomedicum, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
Astrid Murumägi, Kai Krohn
Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
Petra Eskelin
Department of Human Molecular Genetics, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Petra Eskelin, Jaakko Perheentupa
Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Eystein Husebye
Division of Endocrinology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway
Eystein Husebye
Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Yoshihisa Kadota, Nick Willcox
Neurosciences Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: ameager@nibsc.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

A. Meager, P. Peterson, and N. Willcox initiated and designed the study. A. Meager, K. Visvalingam, P. Peterson, K. Möll, A. Murumägi, K. Krohn, P. Eskelin, J. Perheentupa, Y. Kadota, E. Husebye, and N. Willcox collected samples or data or did experiments for the study. K. Möll cultured monocyte-derived DCs from the APS1 patients' and healthy donors' blood, and extracted total RNA and synthesized cDNA, which was used in the quantitative RT-PCR experiment. A. Meager, P. Peterson, K. Möll, J. Perheentupa, and N. Willcox analyzed the data. P. Eskelin designed and performed mutational analyses and human leukocyte antigen genotyping of the APS1 patients. J. Perheentupa and E. Husebye enrolled Finnish and Norwegian APS1 patients, respectively. K. Krohn enrolled the APS1 patient whose peripheral blood monocytes were used by K. Möll to generate DCs. J. Perheentupa and E. Husebye are the clinicians who followed all the APS1 patients involved, collected and organized all the clinical data defining each individual's course of disease, enrolled them for the study of the immune pathology of APS1, stored all the serum samples that were analyzed in this study, participated in the analysis of the immunological versus the clinical findings, and contributed to the revision of the manuscript at several stages. P. Peterson and N. Willcox collected serum samples from patients with APS2, or sporadic CMC, HP, or AD. N. Willcox also helped to collect the samples from the MG/thymoma patients mentioned in Table 2. A. Meager and N. Willcox played a major role in drafting the text, and P. Peterson, K. Möll, K. Krohn, J. Perheentupa, and E. Husebye contributed to writing the paper.