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Research Article

Improving Imperfect Data from Health Management Information Systems in Africa Using Space–Time Geostatistics

  • Peter W Gething mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: pgething@soton.ac.uk

    Affiliations: School of Geography, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Abdisalan M Noor,

    Affiliation: Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Priscilla W Gikandi,

    Affiliation: Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Esther A. A Ogara,

    Affiliation: Ministry of Health, Division of Health Management Information System, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Simon I Hay,

    Affiliations: Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Mark S Nixon,

    Affiliation: School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Robert W Snow,

    Affiliations: Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, Centre for Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Peter M Atkinson

    Affiliation: School of Geography, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Published: June 06, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030271

About the Authors

Peter W Gething, Peter M Atkinson
School of Geography, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
Peter W Gething, Mark S Nixon
School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
Abdisalan M Noor, Priscilla W Gikandi, Simon I Hay, Robert W Snow
Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
Esther A. A Ogara
Ministry of Health, Division of Health Management Information System, Nairobi, Kenya
Simon I Hay
Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Robert W Snow
Centre for Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: pgething@soton.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

P. W. Gething was responsible for the overall conception and implementation of the analytical approach used and for writing the paper. A. M. Noor was responsible for design and implementation of the data collection, collation, and preparation, provided conceptual and analytical support in the processing of the data, and contributed to the final manuscript. P. W. Gikandi provided substantive technical support to match geocoded HMIS data to facility locations, served as liaison between the research team and the Kenyan Ministry of Health, and helped prepare the final analysis. E. A. A. Ogara is head of the Division of Health Management Information Systems at the Kenyan Ministry of Health and provided access to the data and correction of identifiable errors, and helped prepare the manuscript. S. I. Hay provided support in the collection and preparation of data, provided conceptual guidance in the development of the modelling approach, and assisted in the refinement of the final manuscript. M. S. Nixon provided support in the development of statistical methodology, provided overall conceptual guidance, and assisted in the refinement of the final manuscript. R. W. Snow was responsible for conception of the project and strategic guidance, and contributed to the preparation of the final manuscript. P. M. Atkinson provided overall conceptual, analytical, and practical support to the development and implementation of the geostatistical modelling approach and assisted in writing the paper.