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Research Article

Does Random Treatment Assignment Cause Harm to Research Participants?

  • Cary P Gross mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cary.gross@yale.edu

    Affiliations: Section of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Harlan M Krumholz,

    Affiliations: Section of General Internal Medicine and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Section of Health Policy and Administration, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Gretchen Van Wye,

    Affiliation: Section of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Ezekiel J Emanuel,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Bioethics, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David Wendler

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Bioethics, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: June 06, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030188

About the Authors

Cary P Gross
Section of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Harlan M Krumholz
Section of General Internal Medicine and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Cary P Gross, Harlan M Krumholz
Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Harlan M Krumholz
Section of Health Policy and Administration, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Gretchen Van Wye
Section of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Ezekiel J Emanuel, David Wendler
Department of Clinical Bioethics, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: cary.gross@yale.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

CPG, EJE, and DW designed the study. GVW abstracted data from articles. CPG, GVW, EJE, and DW analyzed the data. CPG, HMK, GVW, EJE, and DW contributed to writing the paper.