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Research Article

Bioinformatics and Multiepitope DNA Immunization to Design Rational Snake Antivenom

  • Simon C Wagstaff mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: simonw@liv.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Gavin D Laing,

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • R. David G Theakston,

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Christina Papaspyridis,

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Robert A Harrison

    Affiliation: Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Published: June 06, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030184

About the Authors

Simon C Wagstaff, Gavin D Laing, R. David G Theakston, Christina Papaspyridis, Robert A Harrison
Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: simonw@liv.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SCW and RAH designed the study. SCW, GDL, CP, and RAH performed experimental work. RDGT provided venoms. SCW and RAH contributed to writing the paper.