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Research Article

Cynomolgus Macaque as an Animal Model for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

  • James V Lawler,

    Affiliation: Infectious Diseases Department, National Naval Medical Center (NNMC), Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    ¤a Current address: Division of Medicine, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Timothy P Endy,

    Affiliation: Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

    ¤b Current address: Communicable Diseases and Immunology Division, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Lisa E Hensley,

    Affiliation: Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Aura Garrison,

    Affiliation: Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth A Fritz,

    Affiliation: Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • May Lesar,

    Affiliation: Radiology Division, National Naval Medical Center (NNMC); Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Ralph S Baric,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • David A Kulesh,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David A Norwood,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Leonard P Wasieloski,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Melanie P Ulrich,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Tom R Slezak,

    Affiliation: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth Vitalis,

    Affiliation: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America

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  • John W Huggins,

    Affiliation: Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Peter B Jahrling,

    Affiliation: Headquarters Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

    ¤c Current address: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jason Paragas mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jason.paragas@det.amedd.army.mil

    Affiliation: Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: April 18, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030149

About the Authors

James V Lawler
Infectious Diseases Department, National Naval Medical Center (NNMC), Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Timothy P Endy, Lisa E Hensley, Aura Garrison, Elizabeth A Fritz, John W Huggins, Jason Paragas
Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America
May Lesar
Radiology Division, National Naval Medical Center (NNMC); Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Ralph S Baric
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
David A Kulesh, David A Norwood, Leonard P Wasieloski, Melanie P Ulrich
Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America
Tom R Slezak, Elizabeth Vitalis
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America
Peter B Jahrling
Headquarters Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jason.paragas@det.amedd.army.mil

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JVL, TPE, RSB, DAK, DAN, JWH, and JP designed the study. JVL, LEH, AG, EAF, DAK, DAN, MPU, JWH, PBJ, and JP analyzed the data. EAF enrolled patients. JVL, TPE, RSB, DAK, DAN, LPW, MPU, PBJ, and JP contributed to writing the paper. JVL, LEH, AG, RSB, DAK, LPW, MPU, and JWH collected data or did experiments for the study. AG performed and analyzed the majority of the RNA extractions and real-time RT-PCR. AG performed and analyzed all of the plaque neutralizing antibody tests. AG was involved in all of the animal handling and daily observations of the animals. ML interpreted the radiographs of the animals. DAK co-designed, validated, and analyzed the real time PCR assays and data. DAK designed, tested and analyzed the real-time PCR limit of detection (LOD) experiments and data. LPW conducted research that contributed to the development of real-time PCR assays for SARS-CoV that were reported in the manuscript. LPW critically reviewed the draft manuscript and provided revisions for inclusion in the final draft to the first author. MPU was involved with and led the group of technicians who performed the Trizol extractions and ran the real-time PCR assays. TRS and EV used our DNA computational system to design one of the SARS-specific PCR primer sets that was used for the molecular biology studies. JWH handled animals, collected specimens, and analyzed the results. RSB helped analyze the data.