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Research Article

Impact of HIV-1 Subtype and Antiretroviral Therapy on Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Genotype: Results of a Global Collaboration

  • Rami Kantor mail,

    *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rkantor@ brown.edu

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Disease and Center for AIDS Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

    ¤Current affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • David A Katzenstein,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Disease and Center for AIDS Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Brad Efron,

    Affiliation: Department of Statistics and Division of Biostatistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

    X
  • Ana Patricia Carvalho,

    Affiliation: Hospital Egas Moniz, Lisbon, Portugal

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  • Brian Wynhoven,

    Affiliation: BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Patricia Cane,

    Affiliation: Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, United Kingdom

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  • John Clarke,

    Affiliation: Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, St. Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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  • Sunee Sirivichayakul,

    Affiliation: Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

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  • Marcelo A Soares,

    Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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  • Joke Snoeck,

    Affiliation: Rega Institute for Medical Research, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Candice Pillay,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Hagit Rudich,

    Affiliation: Central Virology, Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health, Tel-Hashomer, Israel

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  • Rosangela Rodrigues,

    Affiliation: Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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  • Africa Holguin,

    Affiliation: Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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  • Koya Ariyoshi,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Maria Belen Bouzas,

    Affiliation: Fundación Huesped, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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  • Pedro Cahn,

    Affiliation: Fundación Huesped, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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  • Wataru Sugiura,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Vincent Soriano,

    Affiliation: Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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  • Luis F Brigido,

    Affiliation: Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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  • Zehava Grossman,

    Affiliation: Central Virology, Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health, Tel-Hashomer, Israel

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  • Lynn Morris,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Anne-Mieke Vandamme,

    Affiliation: Rega Institute for Medical Research, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Amilcar Tanuri,

    Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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  • Praphan Phanuphak,

    Affiliation: Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

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  • Jonathan N Weber,

    Affiliation: Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, St. Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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  • Deenan Pillay,

    Affiliation: University College London and Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom

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  • P. Richard Harrigan,

    Affiliation: BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Ricardo Camacho,

    Affiliation: Hospital Egas Moniz, Lisbon, Portugal

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  • Jonathan M Schapiro,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Disease and Center for AIDS Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Robert W Shafer

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Disease and Center for AIDS Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Published: April 26, 2005
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020112

About the Authors

Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
Division of Infectious Disease and Center for AIDS Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
Brad Efron
Department of Statistics and Division of Biostatistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
Ana Patricia Carvalho, Ricardo Camacho
Hospital Egas Moniz, Lisbon, Portugal
Brian Wynhoven, P. Richard Harrigan
BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Patricia Cane
Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, United Kingdom
John Clarke, Jonathan N Weber
Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, St. Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Sunee Sirivichayakul, Praphan Phanuphak
Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Marcelo A Soares, Amilcar Tanuri
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Joke Snoeck, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
Rega Institute for Medical Research, Leuven, Belgium
Candice Pillay, Lynn Morris
National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
Hagit Rudich, Zehava Grossman
Central Virology, Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health, Tel-Hashomer, Israel
Rosangela Rodrigues, Luis F Brigido
Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Africa Holguin, Vincent Soriano
Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
Koya Ariyoshi, Wataru Sugiura
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
Maria Belen Bouzas, Pedro Cahn
Fundación Huesped, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Deenan Pillay
University College London and Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: rkantor@ brown.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

R. Kantor, D. A. Katzenstein, B. Efron, J. M. Schapiro, and R. W. Shafer designed the study. R. Kantor, D. A. Katzenstein, B. Efron, A. P. Carvalho, B. Wynhoven, P. Cane, J. Clarke, S. Sirivichayakul, M. A. Soares, J. Snoeck, C. Pillay, H. Rudich, R. Rodrigues, A. Holguin, K. Ariyoshi, M. B. Bouzas, and R. W. Shafer analyzed the data. R Kantor, D. A. Katzenstein, P. Cahn, W. Sugiura, V. Soriano, L. F. Brigido, Z. Grossman, L. Morris, A.-M. Vandamme, A. Tanuri, P. Phanuphak, J. N. Weber, D. Pillay, P. R. Harrigan, R. Camacho, and R. W. Shafer interpreted the data. R. Kantor, D. A. Katzenstein, and R. W. Shafer contributed to writing the paper.