Advertisement
Research Article

Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration

  • Irving Kirsch mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: i.kirsch@hull.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom

    X
  • Brett J Deacon,

    Affiliation: University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, United States of America

    X
  • Tania B Huedo-Medina,

    Affiliation: Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America

    X
  • Alan Scoboria,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

    X
  • Thomas J Moore,

    Affiliation: Institute for Safe Medication Practices, Huntingdon Valley, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Blair T Johnson

    Affiliation: Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America

    X
  • Published: February 26, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045

Reader Comments (47)

Post a new comment on this article

Conformation of current information.

Posted by plosmedicine on 31 Mar 2009 at 00:22 GMT

Author: L K Tucker
Position: Retired
Institution: Retired
E-mail: kc4iai@hotmail.com
Submitted Date: February 29, 2008
Published Date: March 3, 2008
This comment was originally posted as a “Reader Response” on the publication date indicated above. All Reader Responses are now available as comments.

The opportunity is present to move the understanding of mental illness forward if this study is accepted and the findings investigated further.

My comment is not from a professional perspective. I absolutely support the article. I want to offer an explanation of the reason the findings are true. This may seem off point but it supports these findings and predicts that similar studies will always show this result.

This study confirms what is already known about antidepressants to those outside medical and psychiatric fields. There have been previous academic investigations that show similar placebo effects for the same drugs.

The fact that placebo performs almost as well as drugs suggest that the drugs actually do nothing. It should be a wakeup for those who still believe depression and mental illness are caused by brain disease. Why is this not obvious?

It is well known that drugs don’t work in each case. Many sources tell of trying several medications before finding one that seems to work. Moreover a drug may stop working then start working again.

How is that possible?

It’s possible if something else is acting while drugs are being used.

What is happening to cause improvements in mental conditions contemporaneous with drug treatment?

Depression can be correlated to a little known problem discovered when it caused mental breaks for 1960’s office workers. Frequent subliminal triggering attempts of the vision startle reflex caused those episodes. The office cubicle was designed to deal with this exposure and stopped the mental events where cubicles are correctly used.

When the designers, engineers, human factor scientists, and psychologists solved their problem they did not look further. There has been no research on this phenomenon. The episode in business offices is thought temporary and harmless.

This accidental discovery is unknown in any area of mental health services.

Subliminal Distraction is the repeating subliminal appreciation of threat from detected movement in peripheral vision. It eventually colors thought and reason.

This trigger event for the vision startle reflex is said to stimulate the brain at a level below thought, reason, or consciousness. Subjects are unaware anything is happening to them. This is a previously un-described form of operant conditioning.

Subliminal Distraction exposure can be shown to cause depression, panic attacks, fear, paranoia, and thoughts of suicide. In Qi Gong and Kundalini Yoga it has been doing this for over 3000 years.

No one in psychology or medicine is aware of this Design problem. Practitioners, unaware of subliminal stimulus, innocently but ignorantly attribute remissions of depression to their drug treatment. Patients swear by their medication unaware of behaviors they have to create SD exposure or that slight changes in those behaviors caused the remission of Depression.

A decrease in SD exposure allows Depression remission. An increase in exposure causes a relapse. If SD exposure reaches a personal threshold in a compact time frame; the subject has a dissociative mental break.

No one is screening patients for Subliminal Distraction exposure before prescribing medication.

Evidence of this phenomenon is in plain sight only if you are aware of the accidental discovery of Subliminal Distraction.

Startle-matching behaviors show the depth and range of possible outcomes from Subliminal Distraction. These Culture Bound Syndromes appear around the world where too-small single-room living and working arrangements allow the opportunity for SD exposure.

M. H. St. Hilaire (et al) suggested that the behaviors of Jumping Frenchmen of Maine disorder could be explained by operant conditioning due to “special circumstances” in the logging camp bunkhouses of rural Maine. But without the knowledge of Subliminal Distraction the investigation stopped there.

VisionAndPsychosis.Net

Competing interests declared: I am an independant historical psychology researcher and write the website, VisionAndPsychosis.Net.